Elizabeth A. Stone

Elizabeth Stone
Associate Professor
W376 CB
  • B.A., Grinnell College (2005)
  • Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison (2009)

Environmental, organic, and analytical chemistry; emphasis placed on understanding molecular composition, transformation, and sources of atmospheric aerosols; sea spray; combustion; co-firing; bioaerosols; secondary organic aerosol; laboratory and field studies; gas and liquid chromatography; mass spectrometry; source apportionment

Research Interests: 

Human exposures to particulate matter in the atmosphere are among the leading causes of premature death worldwide. Particles in the air are also known to have large, but uncertain effects on the radiative balance of the earth. The health and climate effects of particulate matter depend on their chemical and physical properties, and reflect their sources and atmospheric processing. Research in the Stone Group combines analytical, environmental, and organic chemistry with the objective of advancing our understanding of the chemical composition and sources of atmospheric particulate matter.  We use chromatography and mass spectrometry to improve measurements of atmospheric pollutants and source apportionment techniques to link pollution to its sources.

Studies of ambient aerosol composition are used to understand its origin and gain insight to how aerosols transform in the environment. Several ongoing projects include (i) the characterization emissions from biomass burning, and prevalent combustion sources in South and East Asia (e.g., cook stoves, brick kilns, and peat burning); (ii) the molecular characterization of sea spray aerosol under the influence of phytoplankton blooms within the Center for Aerosol Impacts on Climate and the Environment; (iii) quantification of organosulfates and sulfonates in background and urban locations, in order to examine anthropogenic influences on secondary organic aerosol formation, and (iv) the study of the spatial and temporal variation in ambient particulate matter and bioaerosols in Iowa.

Our research incorporates field-based and laboratory experiments. We utilize a variety of quantitative analytical tools, including gas and liquid chromatography (GC and LC) to separate chemical species and enhance their detection and mass spectrometry (MS) for determination of marker species and quantitation.  Aerosol measurements are used to evaluate temporal and spatial variations in aerosol concentrations and in source apportionment models.  With an improved understanding aerosol composition and origins, the better equipped we are to manage air quality and protect human health.

Recent Publications: 
  • Hughes, D.; Stone, E. A.; “Organosulfates in the Midwestern United States: Abundance, composition, and stability.” Environmental Chemistry, doi:10.1071/EN18260
  • Hettiyadura, A. P. S. ; Al-Naiema, I. M. J.; Hughes, D.; Fang, T.; Stone, E. A.; “Organosulfates in Atlanta, Georgia: Anthropogenic influences on biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation.” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2019, 19, 3191-3206, doi: 10.5194/acp-19-3191-2019.
  • Lee, H.; Kaluarachchi, C. P.; Hasenecz, E. S. ; Zhu, Z.; Popa, E.; Stone, E. A.; Tivanski, A. V. “Effect of dry or wet substrate deposition on the organic volume fraction of core-shell aerosol particles” Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 2019, 12, 2033-2041,doi: 10.5194/amt-12-2033-2019.
  • Schill, S. R.; Burrows, S. M.; Hasenecz, E. S.; Stone, E. A.; Bertram, T. H.; “The impact of divalent cations on the enrichment of soluble saccharides in primary sea-spray aerosol.” Atmosphere. 2018, 9(12), 476, 10.3390/atmos9120476.
  • Al-Naiema, I. M.; Hettiyadura, A. P. S.; Wallace, H. W.; Sanchez, N. P.; Madler, C. J.; Cevik, B. K.; Bui, A.; Kettler, J.; Griffin, R. J.; Stone, E. A.;  “Source apportionment of fine particulate matter in Houston, Texas: Insights to secondary organic aerosols” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2018, 18, 15601-15622, doi:10.5194/acp-18-15601-2018.
  • Khan, Z. Y.; Kettler, J.; Khwaja, H. A.; Naqvi, I. I.; Malik, A.; Stone, E. A.; Organic Aerosol Characterization and Source Identification in Karachi, Pakistan,  Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 18 (10), 2550-2564, 10.4209/aaqr.2017.12.0579
  • Hettiyadura, A. P. S.; Xu, L.; Jayarathne, T. ; Skog, K.; Guo, H.; Weber, R. J.; Nenes, A.; Keutsch, F.; Ng. N. L.; Stone, E. A.; Source Apportionment of Organic Carbon in Centreville, AL using Organosulfates in Organic Tracer-based Positive Matrix Factorization, Atmospheric Environment, 2018, 186, 74-88, 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.05.007
  • Al-Naiema, I.; Wang, Y.-Q.; Zhang, Y.-X.; Sheesley, R. J.; Stone, E. A.; Source apportionment of fine particulate matter organic carbon in Shenzhen, China by chemical mass balance and radiocarbon methods, Environmental Pollution, 2018, 240, 34-43, doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.04.071.
  • T. Jayarathne; C. E. Stockwell; Gilbert, A.; Daugherty, K.; M. A. Cochrane; K. C. Ryan; E. I. Putra; B. H. Saharjo; A. D. Nurhayati; I. Albar; R. J. Yokelson; E. A. Stone; Chemical characterization of fine particulate matter emitted by peat fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, during the 2015 El Niño Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2018, 4, 2585-2600, doi: 10.5194/acp-18-2585-2018.
  • Bertram, T.; Cochran, R. E.; Grassian, V. H.; Stone, E. A.; Sea Spray Aerosol Chemical Composition: Elemental and Molecular Mimics for Laboratory Studies of Heterogeneous and Multiphase Reactions. Chemical Society Reviews, 2018, doi: 10.1039/C7CS00008A.
  • Jayarathne, T., Stockwell, C. E., Bhave, P. V., Rathnayake, C.M., Islam, M.R., Praveen, P.S., Panday, A. K., Adhikari, S., Maharjan, R., Goetz, J.D., DeCarlo, P. F., Saikawa, E., Yokelson, R. J., & Stone, E. A. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from wood and dung cooking fires, brick kilns, generators, trash and crop residue burning. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2018, 18, 2259-2286, doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-2259-2018.
  • Cochran, R. E.; Laskina, O.; Trueblood, J.; Estillore, A.; Morris, H. S.; Jayarathne, T.; Sultana, C.; Lee, C.; Lin, P.; Laskin, J.; Laskin, A.; Dowling, J.; Qin, Z.; Cappa, C. D.; Bertram, T. H.; Tivanski, A. V.; Stone, E. A.; Prather, K. A.; Grassian, V. H.; Molecular Characterization of Sea Spray Particles: Influence of Ocean Biology on Particle Composition and Interaction with Water. Chem 2017, 2, 655-667, doi: 10.1016/j.chempr.2017.03.007.
  • Rathnayake, C.; Kettler, J.; Metwali, N.; Jayarathne, T.; Huang, Y.; Thorne, P.; O’Shaughnessy, P.; Stone, E. A.;  Influence of Rain on the Abundance of Bioaerosols in Fine and Coarse Particles Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2017, 17, 2459-2475, doi:10.5194/acp-17-2459-2017.
  • Al-Naiema, I.; Stone, E. A.; Evaluation of Anthropogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol Tracers from Aromatic Hydrocarbons Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2017, 17, 2053-2065, doi: 0.5194/acp-17-2053-2017
  • Al-Naiema, I.; Roppo, H.; Stone, E. A. Quantification furandiones in ambient aerosol Atmospheric Environment, 2017, 153, 41-46, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.01.002.
  • Hettiyadura, A. P. S.; Jayarathne, T.; Baumann, K.; Goldstein, A. H.; de Gouw, J. A.; Keutsch, F. N.; Skog, K.; Stone, E. A.; Qualitative and quantitative analysis of atmospheric organosulfates in Centreville, Alabama. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2017, 17, 1342-1359, doi: 10.5194/acp-17-1343-2017.
  • Jayarathne, T.; Sultana, C.; Lee, C.; Malfatti, F.; Cox, J. L.; Pendergraft, M. A. ; Moore, K. A.; Azam, F.; Tivanski, A. V.; Cappa, C. D.; Bertram, T. H.; Grassian, V. H.; Prather, K. A.; Stone, E. A.; Enrichment of Saccharides and Salts in Sea Spray Aerosol During two Phytoplankton Blooms. Environmental Science & Technology, 2016, 50 (21) pp 11511-11520, doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b02988.
  • Gosselin, M.I.; Rathnayake, C. M.; Crawford , I.; Pöhlker, C.;  Fröhlich-Nowoisky; J.,  Schmer; B., Després, V.; Engling, G.; Gallagher, M.; Stone, E. A.; Pöschl, U.; Huffman, J. A. Fluorescent Bioaerosol Particle, Molecular Tracer, and Fungal Spore Concentrations during Dry and Rainy Periods in a Semi-Arid Forest Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2016, 15165-15184, doi:10.5194/acp-16-15165-2016.
  • C. E. Stockwell; T. Jayarathne; M. A. Cochrane; K. C. Ryan; E. I. Putra; B. H. Saharjo; A. D. Nurhayati; I. Albar; D. R. Blake; I. Simpson; E. A. Stone; R. J. Yokelson; Field measurements of trace gases and aerosols emitted by peat fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia during the 2015 El Niño Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2016, 16, 11711-11732, 10.5194/acp-16-11711-2016.
  • C. E. Stockwell, T. J. Christian, J. D. Goetz, T. Jayarathne, P. V. Bhave, S. Adhikari, P. S. Praveen, R. Maharjan, P. F. DeCarlo, E. A. Stone, E. Saikawa, D. R. Blake, I. Simpson, R. J. Yokelson, A. K. Panday; Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of trace gases and light-absorbing carbon from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2016, 16, 11043-11081, doi:10.5194/acp-16-11043-2016
  • Rathnayake, C.; Metwali, N.; Baker, Z.; Jayarathne, T.; Thorne, P.; O’Shaughnessy, P., Stone, E. A.; Urban enhancements of bioaerosols in the Midwestern United States. Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 2016, 121 (9), 5071-5089, doi:10.1002/2015JD024538.
  • Cochran, R. E. ; Jayarathne, T. J.; Stone, E. A.; Grassian, V. H.; Selectivity across the interface: A test of surface activity in the composition of organic enriched aerosols from bubble bursting. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 2016, 7, 1692-1696, doi: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.6b00489
  • Estillore, A. D.; Qin, Z.; Hettiyadura, A. P. S.; Humphrey, T.; Stone, E. A.; Grassian, V. H.; Deliquescence and hygroscopic growth of organosulfates. Environmental Science & Technology, 2016, 50 (8) 4259-4268, doi:10.1021/acs.est.5b05014.
  • ​Cochran, R. E.; Laskina, O.; Jayarathne, T.; Laskin, A.; Laskin, J.; Lin, P.; Sultana, C.; Cappa, C. D.; Bertram, T. H.; Prather, K.; Grassian, V. H.; Stone, E. A. Characterization of anionic surfactants in fine and coarse fractions of nascent sea spray aerosol. 2016, 50 (5), 2477-2486, doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b04053.
  • Jayarathne, T.; Rathnayake, C. M.; Stone, E. A. Local impacts on primary and secondary aerosols in the Midwestern United States. Atmospheric Environment, 2016, 130, 74-83, doi: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.09.058.
  • Al Naiema, I., Mudukotuwa, I.; Estillore, A.; Grassian, V. H., Stone, E. A. “Impacts of Co-firing Biomass on Emissions of Particulate Matter to the Atmosphere” Fuel, 2015 162, 111-120, doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2015.08.054.
  • Hettiyadura, A. P. S.; Stone, E. A.; Kundu, S.; Baker, Z.; Geddes, E.; Richards, K.; Humphry, T. "Determination of atmospheric organosulfates using HILIC chromatography with MS detection" Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 2015, 8, 2347-2358.  doi:10.5194/amt-8-2347-2015
  • Downard, J.; Singh, A.; Bullard, R.; Jayarathne, T.; Rathnayake, C. M.; Simmons, D. L.; Wels, B. R.; Spak, S. N.; Peters, T.; Beardsley, D.; Stanier, C. O.; Stone, E. A. "Uncontrolled combustion of shredded tires in a landfill - Part 1: Characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions" Atmospheric Environment, 2015, 104, 195-204. doi: 10.1016.j.atmosenv.2014.12.059
  • Singh, A.; Spak, S. N.; Stone, E. A.; Downard, J.; Bullard, R.; Pooley, M.; Kostle, P. A.; Mainprize, M. W.; Wichman, M. D.; Peters, T.; Beardsley, D.; Stanier, C. O. "Uncontrolled combustion of shredded tires in a landfill ‐ Part 2: Population Exposure, Public Health Response, and an Air Quality Index for Urban Fires"  Atmospheric Environment, 2015, 104, 273-283. doi: 10.1016.j.atmosenv.2015.01.002
  • Laskina, O.; Morris, H. S.; Grandquist, J. R.; Qin, Z.; Stone, E. A.; Tivanski, A. V.; Grassian, V. H. “Size Matters in the Water Uptake and Hygroscopic Growth of Atmospherically Relevant Multi-Component Aerosol Particles”  Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 2015,  doi: 10.1021/jp510268p
  • Jayarathne, T.; Stockwell, C. E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Nakao, S., Stone, E. A. "Emissions of fine particle fluoride from biomass burning" Environmental Science & Technology, 2014, 48 (21): 12636-12644. doi: 10.1021/es502933
  • Staudt, S.; Kundu, S.; He, X.; Lehmler, H.; Lin, Y.; Cui, T.; Kristensen, K.; Glasius, M.; Zhang, X.; Weber, R.J.; Surratt, J.D., Stone, E. A. “Aromatic organosulfates in atmospheric aerosols: synthesis, characterization, and abundance” Atmospheric Environment, 2014, 94, 366-373.  doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.05.049
  • Kundu, S; Stone, E. A.  "Composition and sources of fine particulate matter across urban and rural sites in the Midwestern United States" Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, 2014, 16 (6), 1360 - 1370. doi: 10.1039/C3EM00719G
  • Kundu, S.; Quraishi, T.; Yu, G.; Suarez, C.; Keutsch, F.; Stone, E. A. “Evidence and Quantitation of Aromatic Organosulfates in Ambient Aerosols in Lahore Pakistan Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2013, 13: 4865-4875.
  • Stone, E. A; Nguyen, T.T.; Pradhan B. B.; Dangol, P. M., Assessment of biogenic secondary organic aerosol in the Himalayas.  Environmental Chemistry, 2012, 9, 263-272, invited manuscript.
  • Stone, E. A.; Yang, L.M.; Yu, L.E.; Rupahketi, M., Characterization of Organosulfates in Atmospheric Aerosols at Four Asian Locations, Atmospheric Environment, 2012, 47, 323-329.