Developing novel nanomaterials that provide an enhanced understanding of basic actinide chemistry and the mobility of nuclear materials in environmental systems.


Bold indicates Forbes group member, * indicates corresponding author


Kravchuk, D. V. and T. Z. Forbes* “In Situ Generation of Organic Peroxide to Create a Nanotubular Uranyl Peroxide Phosphate.” (2019) Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 51, 18429-18433. link

Pyrch, M. M., J. M. Williams, and T. Z. Forbes* “Exploring Crown-ether functionalization on the stabilization of hexavalent neptunium.” (2019) ChemComm, 55, 9319-9322. link

Bjorklund, J.L., M. M. Pyrch, M. C. Basile, S.E. Mason, and T. Z. Forbes* “Actinyl-cation interactions:  Experimental and theoretical assessment of [U(VI)O2Cl4]2- and [Np(VI)O2Cl4]2- in solid state and aqueous solutions.” (2019) Dalton Transactions, 48, 8861-8871. link

Bjorklund, J. L., J. W. Bennett, T.Z. Forbes, and S. E. Mason* “Keggin Heteroatom Reactivity Comparison by Anion Adsorption.” (2019) Crystal Growth and Design, 19, 2820-2829 link

Jayasinghe, A., L. Applegate, D. K. Unruh, and T. Z. Forbes*  “Utilizing autoxidation of solvents to promote the formation of uranyl peroxide materials.”  (2019) Crystal Growth and Design, 19, 1756-1766 link

Flynn, S., L., K. von Gunten, T. Warchola, T. Z. Forbes, K. O Konhauser, G. G. Goss, J. W. Martin, D. S. Alessi* “Characterization and implications of solids associated with hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water from the Duvernay Formation, Alberta, Canada.” (2019) Environmental Science:  Processes and Impacts 21, 242-255. link


Carter, K. P., J. Jian, M. M. Pyrch, T. Z. Forbes, R. J. Abergel, W. A. de Jong, J. K. Gibson “Reductive activation of the neptunyl and plutonyl oxo species with a hydroxypyridinone chelating ligand.” (2018) ChemComm 54, 10698-10701. link

Payne, M. K., Pyrch, M. M. Jubinsky, M., Basile, M.C., and T.Z. Forbes* “Impact of oxo groups on actinyl materials:  Highlight on thermal expansion behaviour.” (2018) ChemComm 54, 10828-10831. link

Lu, G., A. J. Haes*, and T.Z. Forbes* “Detection and identification of uranium species using vibrational spectroscopy.” (2018) Coordination Chemistry Reviews 374, 314-344. link

Lu, G., A. J. Johns, B. Neupane, H. Phan, D. M. Cwiertny, T. Z. Forbes, and A. J. Haes* “Matrix-independent SERS detection of uranyl using electrospun amidoximated polyacrylonitrile mats.” (2018) Analytical Chemistry, 90, 6766-6772. link

Basile, M., E. Cole, and T.Z. Forbes* “Impacts of oxo interactions within neptunyl crown ether complexes.”  (2018) Inorganic Chemistry, 57, 6016-6028. link

Jayasinghe, A., M. Payne, D. Unruh, A. Johns, J. Leddy, and T.Z. Forbes* “Diffusion and selectivity of water confined within metal-organic nanotubes.” (2018) Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 6, 1531-1539. link


Payne, M., R. Laird, T. Buresh, and T.Z. Forbes* “Use of zwitterionic ligands in uranyl hybrid materials:  Explorations on the structural features that control water ordering and mobility.” (2017) Crystal Growth and Design, 17, 6498-6509. link

Bennett, J. W., J. L. Bjorklund, and T.Z. Forbes** and S. E. Mason “A survey of reactivity relationships of anionic adsorbates on aluminum nanoclusters.” (2017) Inorganic Chemistry, 56, 13014-13028. link

Basile, M., D. K. Unruh, E. Cole, L. Streicher, and T.Z. Forbes* “Spectral Analysis of the Uranyl Squarate and Croconate System: Evaluating Differences between the Solution and Solid-State Phases.” (2017) Crystal Growth and Design, 17, 5330-5341. link

Jayasinghe A., M. Payne, and T.Z. Forbes* “Synthesis and characterization of heterometallic uranyl pyridinedicarboxylate compounds.” (2017) Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 254 25-31. link

Perkins, C. K., E.S. Eitrheim, B. L. Fulton, L. B. Fullmer, C. A. Colla, D.-H. Park, A. F. Oliveri, W. H. Casey, M. Nyman, T. Z. Forbes, D. W. Johnson, and D. A. Keszler. “Synthesis of aluminum hydroxide octamer by a simple dissolution approach.”  (2017) Angewandte Chemie, International Edition, 56 10161-10164. link

Knight, A. W., B. Qiao, R. Chiarizia, G. Ferru, T.Z. Forbes, R. Ellis, L. Soderholm “Subtle Effects of Aliphatic Alcohol Structure on water extraction and solute aggregation in biphasic water/n-dodecane.”  (2017) Langmuir 33, 3776-3786. link

de Groot, J., B.A. Cassell, M. Basile, T. Fetrow, and T.Z. Forbes* “Charge-assisted hydrogen bonding and crystallization effects within U(VI) glycine and formate compounds.” (2017) European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 2017, 1938-1946. link

A.W. Nelson, E. S. Eitrheim, D. May, D.W. Wichman, T.Z. Forbes and M.K. Schultz “Lead-210 and Polonium-210 accumulate in a lake receiving industrial waste discharges – Anthropogenic or natural?” (2017) Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 167, 222-221. link


Eitrheim, E. S., D. May, T.Z. Forbes and A. W. Nelson “Mobility of naturally-occurring radioactive materials in drill cuttings from unconventional drilling operations.” (2016) Environmental Science and Technology Letters 3, 425-429. link

Jayasinghe, A., S.H. Salzman, and T.Z. Forbes* “Metal substitution into metal organic nanotubes:  Impacts on solvent uptake and stability.”  (2016) Crystal Growth and Design 16, 7058-7066. link

Knight, A. W., E. E. Eitrheim, A.W. Nelson, M. Peterson, D. McAlister, T. Z. Forbes, M. K. Schultz “Trace-Level extraction behavior of actinide elements by aliphatic alcohol extractants in mineral acids:  Insights into the trace solution chemistry of protactinium.”  (2016) Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange 34, 509-521. link

Lu, Grace, T.Z. Forbes, A. J. Haes* “SERS detection of uranyl using functionalized gold nanostars promoted by nanoparticle shape and size.“ (2016) Analyst 141, 5137-5143. link

Nelson, A.W. A. Johns, E. S. Eitrheim, A. W. Knight, M. Basile, A. Bettis III, M. K. Schultz and T.Z. Forbes “Barium confounds utility of Radium as environmental indicator of Marcellus shale unconventional drilling waste.”  (2016) Environmental Science:  Processes and Impacts 18, 456-463. link

Cole, E., E. Flores, M. Basile, A. Jayasinghe, J. de Groot, D. K. Unruh, and T.Z. Forbes* “Directing dimensionality in uranyl malate and copper uranyl malate compounds.” (2016) Polyhedron (Special Issue on Undergraduate Research) 114, 378-384. link

Lu, G., T.Z. Forbes, and A. J. Haes* “Evaluating Best Practices in Raman Spectral Analysis for Uranium Speciation and Relative Abundance in Aqueous Solutions.”  (2016) Analytical Chemistry 88, 773-780. link


Corum, K. W.; Fairley, M.; Unruh, D. K.; Payne, M. K.; Forbes, T. Z.*, and Mason, S. E.*  "Characterization of Phosphate and Arsenate Adsorption onto Keggin-Type Al30 Cations by Experimental and Theoretical Methods."  (2015) Inorganic Chemistry 54 (17), 8367-8374.  link

Jayasinghe, A. S.; Unruh, D. K.; Kral, A.; Libo, A.; and Forbes, T. Z.*  "Structural Features in Metal-Organic Nanotube Crystals That Influence Stability and Solvent Uptake."  (2015) Crystal Growth & Design 15 (8), 4062-4070.  link

Fairley, M.; Corum, K. W.; Johns, A.; Unruh, D. K.; Basile, M.; de Groot, J.; Mason, S. E.* and Forbes, T. Z.*  "Isolation and characterization of the [Ga2Al18O8(OH)36(H2O)12]18+ cluster: Cationic Variations of the Wells-Dawson topology." (2015) Chemical Communications 51, 12467-12469.  link

Knight, A. W.; Nelson, A. W.; Eitrheim, E. S.; Forbes, T. Z.; and Schultz, M. K.*  "A chromatographic separation of neptunium and protactinium using 1-octanol impregnated onto a solid phase support." (2015) Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry.  link

Nelson, A. W.; Eitrheim, E. S.Knight, A. W.; May, D.; Mehrhoff, M. A.; Shannon, R.; Litman, R.; Burnett, W. C.; Forbes, T. Z.; and Schultz, M. K.*  "Understanding the Radioactive Ingrowth and Decay of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in the Environment: An Analysis of Produced Fluids from the Marcellus Shale."  (2015) Environmental Health Perspectives 123 (7), 689-696.  link

Unruh, D. K.; de Groot, J.; Fairley, M.; Libo, A.; Miller, S.; and Forbes, T. Z.* "Interplay of Condensation and Chelation in Binary and Ternary Th(IV) Systems." (2015) Inorganic Chemistry 54 (4), 1395-1404.  link

Basile, M.Unruh, D. K.Gojdas, K.Flores, E.Streicher, L.; and Forbes, T. Z.* "Chemical controls on uranyl citrate speciation and the self-assembly of nanoscale macrocycles and sandwich complexes in aqueous solution." (2015) Chemical Communications. 51, 5306-5309.  link 
(Part of the themed collection of 2015 Emerging Investigators)

Basile, M.D. K. UnruhE. FloresA. Johns, and T. Z. Forbes*. "Structural characterization of environmentally relevant ternary uranyl citrate complexes present in aqueous solutions and solid state materials." (2015) Dalton Transactions 44, 2597-2605.  link 
(Part of the themed collection of Dalton Discussion 14: Advancing the chemistry of the f-elements)


Sahu, Sulata K., D. K. Unruh, T. Z. Forbes*, and A. Navrotsky. "Energetics of Formation and Hydration of a Porous Metal Organic Nanotube." (2014) Chemistry of Materials 26 (17), 5105-5112. link

Unruh, D. K., A. Libo, L. Streicher, and T. Z. Forbes*. "Synthesis and characterization of 1-D uranyl thiodigycolate coordination polymers." (2014) Polyhedron 73, 110-117. link

de Groot, J., K. Gojdas, D. K. Unruh, and T. Z. Forbes*. "Use of Charge-Assisted Hydrogen Bonding in the Supramolecular Assembly of Hybrid Uranyl Materials." (2014) Crystal Growth and Design 14 (3), 1357-1365. link


Abeysinghe, S., K. W. Corum, D. L. Neff, S. E. Mason*, and T. Z. Forbes*. "Contaminant Adsorption on Nanoscale Particles: Structural and Theoretical Characterization of Cu2+ Bonding on the Surface of Keggin-Type Polyaluminum (Al30) Molecular Species." (2013) Langmuir 29 (46), 14124-14134. link

Unruh, D. K., K. Gojdas, E. Flores, A. Libo, and T. Z. Forbes*. "Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Hydrolysis Products within the Uranyl Iminodiacetate and Malate Systems" (2013) Inorganic Chemistry 52 (17), 10191-10198. link

Fairley, M., D. K. Unruh, A. Donovan, S. Abeysinghe, and T. Z. Forbes*. "Synthesis and characterization of homo- and heteronuclear molecular Al3+ and Th4+ species chelated by the ethylenediaminetetracetate (edta) ligand." (2013) Dalton Transactions 42, 13706-13714. link

Unruh, D. K.K. GojdasA. Libo, and T. Z. Forbes*. "Development of Metal-Organic Nanotubes Exhibiting Low-Temperature, Reversible Exchange of Confined "Ice Channels."" (2013) Journal of the American Chemical Society 135 (20), 7398-7401. link

Abeysinghe, S., D. K. Unruh, and T. Z. Forbes*. "Surface Modification of Al30 Keggin-Type Polyaluminum Molecular Clusters." (2013) Inorganic Chemistry 52 (10), 5991-5999. link

Alessi, D. S., J. E. S. Szymanowski, T. Z. Forbes, A. N. Quicksall, G. E. Sigmon, P. C. Burns, J. B. Fein.  “Mineralogic controls on aqueous neptunium(V) concentrations in silicate systems." (2013) Journal of Nuclear Materials 433, 233-239. link


Fairley, M., D. K. Unruh, S. Abeysinghe, and T. Z. Forbes*. “Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Heterometallic Thorium Aluminum Polynuclear Molecular Clusters.”  (2012) Inorganic Chemistry 51 (17), 9491-9498. link

Abeysinghe, S., D. K. Unruh, and T. Z. Forbes*.  “Crystallization of Keggin-Type Polyaluminum Species by Supramolecular Interactions with Disulfonate Anions.”  (2012) Crystal Growth and Design 12 (4), 2044-2051. link

Before UIowa


Forbes, T.Z., A.V. Radha, and A. Navrotsky “The energetics of nanophase calcite.”  (2011), Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.  24(15) 7893-7905. link

Forbes, T.Z., J. Kurzman, R. Sedhedri, and A. Navrotsky “The energetics of La4LiAuO8.” (2011) Journal of Materials Research 26(10) 1188-1192. link

Forbes, T.Z., D. McInnis, P. Horan, T. Devine, and P.C. Burns.  “Alteration of secondary uranyl mineral analogues in the presence of hydrogen peroxide.”  (2011) American Mineralogist 96(1) 202-206. link


Forbes, T.Z., M. Nyman, M.A. Rodriguez, and A. Navrotsky.  “Energetics of Lanthanum Tantalate Materials.” (2010) Journal of Solid State Chemistry 183(11) 2516-2521. link

Radha, A. V., T.Z. Forbes, C. Killian, P.U.P.A. Gilbert, and A. Navrotsky.   “Transformation and Crystallization Energetics of Synthetic and Biogenic Amorphous Calcium Carbonate.”  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2010) 107(38) 16438-16443. link


Forbes, T.Z., and S.C. Sevov.  “Metal-Organic Frameworks with Direct Transition Metal-Sulfonate Interactions and Charge-Assisted Hydrogen Bonds.”   Inorganic Chemistry (2009) 48(14) 6873-6878. link

Forbes, T.Z. and P.C. Burns. “Synthesis, structure determination, and infrared spectroscopy of (NpO2)2(SO4)(H2O)4: Prevalence of cation-cation interactions and cationic nets in neptunyl sulfate compounds.” Journal of Solid State Chemistry (2009) 182(1) 43-48. link


Forbes, T.Z., C. Wallace, and P.C. Burns.  “Neptunyl compounds: Polyhedron geometries, bond-valence parameters, and structural hierarchy.” Canadian Mineralogist (2008) 46(6) 1623-1645. link

Forbes, T.Z., J. G. McAlpin R. Murphy, and P.C. Burns.  “Metal-oxide polyhedra assembled into fullerene topologies.”  Angewandte Chemie International Edition (2008) 47 (15) 2710 – 2711. link

Forbes, T.Z. and P.C. Burns.  “Synthesis, structure, and infrared spectroscopy of the first Np5+ neptunyl silicates, Li6(NpO2)4(H2Si2O7)(HSiO4)2(H2O)4 and K3(NpO2)3(Si2O7).”  Inorganic Chemistry (2008)  47(2) 705-712. link


Forbes, T.  Z., V. Goss, M. Jain, and P. C. Burns.  “Structure Determination and infrared spectroscopy of K(UO2)(SO4)(OH)(H2O) and K(UO2)(SO4)(OH).” Inorganic Chemistry (2007), 46(17), 7163-7168. link

Forbes, T. Z. and P. C. Burns. “The crystal structures of X(NpO2)(PO4)(H2O)3 (X = K, Na, Rb, NH4) and their relationship to the autunite group” Canadian Mineralogist, (2007),45(3), 471-477. link

Kubatko, K. A., T. Z. Forbes, A. L. Klingensmith, and P. C. Burns.  “Expanding the Crystal Chemistry of Uranyl Peroxides: Synthesis and Structures of Di- and Triperoxodioxouranium(VI) Complexes.”  Inorganic Chemistry (2007), 46(9), 3657-3662. link

Forbes, T.Z., P.C. Burns, L. Soderholm, and S. Skanthakumar.  “Synthesis, structure determination, and magnetic susceptibility of Np2O5.”  Journal of the American Chemical Society (2007), 129(10), 2760-2761. link

Forbes, T.Z., and P. C. Burns.  “The role of cation–cation interactions in a neptunyl chloride hydrate and topological aspects of neptunyl structural units.” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, (2007), 180, 106-112. link


Forbes, T. Z. and P. C. Burns.  “Synthesis and structure of Ba(NpO2)(PO4)(H2O) and its relationship to the uranophane group.” American Mineralogist (2006), 91, 1089-1093. link

Forbes, T.Z., P. C. Burns, L. Soderholm, S. Skanthakumar. “Crystal structures and magnetic properties of NaK3(NpO2)4(SO4)4(H2O)2 and NaNpO2SO4H2O:  Cation-cation interactions in a neptunyl sulfate framework.” Chemistry of Materials (2006), 18(6),  1643-1649. link


Forbes, T.Z. and P.C. Burns. “Structures and syntheses of four Np5+ sulfate chain structures: Divergence from U6+ crystal chemistry.” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, (2005), 178, 3445-3452. link